Spatial structures of proteins are closely related to protein functions. Integrating protein structures improves the performance of protein–protein interaction (PPI) prediction. However, the limited quantity of known protein structures restricts the application of structure-based prediction methods. Utilizing the predicted protein structure information is a promising method to improve the performance of sequence-based prediction methods. We propose a novel end-to-end framework, TAGPPI, to predict PPIs using protein sequence alone. TAGPPI extracts multi-dimensional features by employing 1D convolution operation on protein sequences and graph learning method on contact maps constructed from AlphaFold. A contact map contains abundant spatial structure information, which is difficult to obtain from 1D sequence data directly. We further demonstrate that the spatial information learned from contact maps improves the ability of TAGPPI in PPI prediction tasks. We compare the performance of TAGPPI with those of nine state-of-the-art sequence-based methods, and TAGPPI outperforms such methods in all metrics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method to use the predicted protein topology structure graph for sequence-based PPI prediction. More importantly, our proposed architecture could be extended to other prediction tasks related to proteins.
Learning spatial structures of proteins improves protein–protein interaction prediction
Briefings in Bioinformatics